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start:hype_model_description:hype_human_water [2018/06/28 14:22]
cpers [Wetland nutrient processes]
start:hype_model_description:hype_human_water [2018/09/10 09:35] (current)
cpers [Links to file description]
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 ===== Constructed wetlands ===== ===== Constructed wetlands =====
  
-For an overview of basic assumptions and explanation of variables see the [[http://​www.smhi.net/​hype/​wiki/​doku.php?​id=start:​hype_model_description:​hype_routing&#​basic_assumptions| Basic assumptions section]] in the Rivers and lakes chapter.+For an overview of basic assumptions and explanation of variables see the [[start:​hype_model_description:​hype_routing&#​basic_assumptions| Basic assumptions section]] in the Rivers and lakes chapter.
  
-The wetlands that are simulated are small artificial ponds. They have an area and depth, but their area is not taken into account in terms of precipitation and evaporation. The water flow passes through the wetlands without being affected, so it's just as nutrient traps that the wetland model is significant. +The wetlands that are simulated are small artificial ponds. They have an area and depth (//dep//), but their area is not taken into account in terms of precipitation and evaporation. The water flow passes through the wetlands without being affected, so it's just as nutrient traps that the wetland model is significant. 
-There are two types of wetlands, just as for the rivers and lakes. They are situated before the river in the calculation scheme. The local wetland (//lrwet//) receives a share of the local runoff the rest passes by unaffected. Wetlands in main rivers (//mrwet//) receive a portion of the flow in the main river and the rest passes unaffected.+There are two types of wetlands, just as for the rivers and lakes. They are situated before the river in the calculation scheme. The local wetland (//lrwet//) receives a share of the local runoff ​(//​part//​) ​the rest passes by unaffected. Wetlands in main rivers (//mrwet//) receive a portion of the flow in the main river and the rest passes unaffected.
  
  
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 <m> prodTP = uptpar * TPin * area * teta^(temp30-tcoeff) </m> <m> prodTP = uptpar * TPin * area * teta^(temp30-tcoeff) </m>
 \\ \\
 +
 +==== Links to file reference ====
 +
 +^Parameter/​Data ^File ^
 +|//​lrwet_area,​ lrwet_dep, lrwet_part//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​geodata.txt|GeoData.txt]]|
 +|//​mrwet_area,​ mrwet_dep, mrwet_part//​|:::​|
 +
 +
  
 ==== Links to relevant modules in the code ==== ==== Links to relevant modules in the code ====
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 Irrigation constitutes a key water management activity in many parts of the world. Therefore, the HYPE model has a routine to simulate irrigation. The representation of irrigation in the model is based on a set of principles. Firstly, the irrigation water demand is assessed. Subsequently,​ the demanded water is withdrawn from the defined irrigation water sources. HYPE can either withdraw water from defined sub-basins in the model domain (subject to availability),​ or from unlimited sources outside the domain. Finally, the withdrawn water is applied onto the classes from which the demand originated. In addition, water losses between demand, withdrawal, and application are taken into account (for withdrawals within the model domain). ​ Irrigation constitutes a key water management activity in many parts of the world. Therefore, the HYPE model has a routine to simulate irrigation. The representation of irrigation in the model is based on a set of principles. Firstly, the irrigation water demand is assessed. Subsequently,​ the demanded water is withdrawn from the defined irrigation water sources. HYPE can either withdraw water from defined sub-basins in the model domain (subject to availability),​ or from unlimited sources outside the domain. Finally, the withdrawn water is applied onto the classes from which the demand originated. In addition, water losses between demand, withdrawal, and application are taken into account (for withdrawals within the model domain). ​
  
-A class is irrigated if the crop type associated with it is irrigated (defined in GeoClass.txt). A crop is irrigated if the irrigation input variables in the CropData.txt file are defined and non-zero (//​plantday,​ lengthini, kcbini, lengthdev, lengthmid, kcbmid, lengthlate, kcbend, dlref//). Irrigation also requires appropriate values in the MgmtData.txt file (//gw_part, regsrcid, irrdam, region_eff, local_eff, demandtype//​) and the par.txt file (//pirrs, pirrg, sswcorr// etc.). See the FileDescription document ​for more details on each file and each parameter.+A class is irrigated if the crop type associated with it is irrigated (defined in GeoClass.txt). A crop is irrigated if the irrigation input variables in the CropData.txt file are defined and non-zero (//​plantday,​ lengthini, kcbini, lengthdev, lengthmid, kcbmid, lengthlate, kcbend, dlref//). Irrigation also requires appropriate values in the MgmtData.txt file (//gw_part, regsrcid, irrdam, region_eff, local_eff, demandtype//​) and the par.txt file (//pirrs, pirrg, sswcorr// etc.). See the [[start:​hype_file_reference|File Reference]] ​for more details on each file and each parameter.
  
 ==== Irrigation water demand ==== ==== Irrigation water demand ====
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 <m> if H <​(S_{SW}×P_{SSWCORR}×AWC) right irrigate </m> <m> if H <​(S_{SW}×P_{SSWCORR}×AWC) right irrigate </m>
  
-H is the plant-available soil moisture (i.e. soil water above //wcwp1// and //wcwp2// in soil layers 1 and 2 respectively). //AWC// is the maximum plant-available water content in soil layers 1 and 2 (i.e. the sum of //fc1// and //fc2//). <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ is a fraction of //AWC// (defined upwards from //wcwp//). Below <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ the crop experiences water stress, creating a need for irrigation. <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ varies from day to day and depends on the crop type and //TP//:+H is the plant-available soil moisture (i.e. soil water above //wcwp1// and //wcwp2// in soil layers 1 and 2 respectively). //AWC// is the maximum plant-available water content in soil layers 1 and 2 (i.e. the sum of //fc1// and //fc2//). <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ is a fraction of //AWC// (defined upwards from //wcwp//). Below <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ the crop experiences water stress, creating a need for irrigation. <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ varies from day to day and depends on the crop type and <​m>​T_P<​/m>:
  
 <m> S_{SW}=1-(DL_{ref}+0.04×(5-{{T_P}/​0.95})) </m> <m> S_{SW}=1-(DL_{ref}+0.04×(5-{{T_P}/​0.95})) </m>
  
-<​m>​DL_{ref}</​m>​ is a crop-type specific reference depletion level (essentially the fraction of //AWC// that can be depleted before stress occurs, defined downwards from //wcfc//). Allen et al. (1998) provide indicative values for <​m>​DL_{ref}</​m>​ (cf. their Table 22). The <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ equation is a slightly modified form of the original FAO-56 equation to account for the fact that only TP is used here. A typical <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ profile is shown in Figure 3.1. By default, <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ is limited to the range 0.2 – 0.9, but it can be further refined with the parameter <​m>​P_{SSWCORR}</​m>​ (//​sswcorr//​ in par.txt) to maximum 1.+<​m>​DL_{ref}</​m>​ is a crop-type specific reference depletion level (essentially the fraction of //AWC// that can be depleted before stress occurs, defined downwards from //wcfc//). Allen et al. (1998) provide indicative values for <​m>​DL_{ref}</​m>​ (cf. their Table 22). The <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ equation is a slightly modified form of the original FAO-56 equation to account for the fact that only <​m>​T_P</​m> ​is used here. A typical <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ profile is shown in Figure 3.1. By default, <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ is limited to the range 0.2 – 0.9, but it can be further refined with the parameter <​m>​P_{SSWCORR}</​m>​ (//​sswcorr//​ in par.txt) to maximum 1.
  
 If irrigation is needed, the required irrigation amount (<​m>​W_{I,​D,​j}</​m>​) can be calculated with three alternative methods in HYPE (chosen by the demandtype variable in MgmtData.txt):​ If irrigation is needed, the required irrigation amount (<​m>​W_{I,​D,​j}</​m>​) can be calculated with three alternative methods in HYPE (chosen by the demandtype variable in MgmtData.txt):​
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 Irrigation water can be abstracted from a set of water sources (Figure 2). Within a given sub-basin, water can be abstracted from the olake, the ilake, the main river, and from groundwater in a deep aquifer. In addition, water can be withdrawn from the olake and the main river of another sub-basin. These sources can be used on their own or in combination. Alternatively,​ HYPE can withdraw water from an unlimited source outside the model domain. This is specified with the ''​irrunlimited''​ code word in info.txt, and applies to all irrigated sub-basins. ​ Irrigation water can be abstracted from a set of water sources (Figure 2). Within a given sub-basin, water can be abstracted from the olake, the ilake, the main river, and from groundwater in a deep aquifer. In addition, water can be withdrawn from the olake and the main river of another sub-basin. These sources can be used on their own or in combination. Alternatively,​ HYPE can withdraw water from an unlimited source outside the model domain. This is specified with the ''​irrunlimited''​ code word in info.txt, and applies to all irrigated sub-basins. ​
  
-Withdrawals are calculated ​just after the local discharge and the upstream discharge ​combine ​to flow into the main river of a given sub-basin.+Withdrawals are calculated ​directly ​after the local discharge and the upstream discharge ​has been combined ​to flow into the main river of a given sub-basin.
  
 |{{:​start:​hype_model_description:​irrigationschematic.png?​500}}| |{{:​start:​hype_model_description:​irrigationschematic.png?​500}}|
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 <m> W_{R,​D,​i}={W_{L,​D,​l,​i}}/​{E_{R,​i}} </m> <m> W_{R,​D,​i}={W_{L,​D,​l,​i}}/​{E_{R,​i}} </m>
  
-The regional efficiency (<​m>​E_{R,​i}</​m>,​ //​region_eff//​ in MgmtData.txt) represents the fraction of the withdrawn water at the regional source that reaches the connected sub-basin. E_{R,i} refers to the connected sub-basin. The regional scaling accounts for often significant water conveyance losses in large irrigation networks (in canals and dams etc.). ​+The regional efficiency (<​m>​E_{R,​i}</​m>,​ //​region_eff//​ in MgmtData.txt) represents the fraction of the withdrawn water at the regional source that reaches the connected sub-basin. ​<m>E_{R,i}</​m> ​refers to the connected sub-basin. The regional scaling accounts for often significant water conveyance losses in large irrigation networks (in canals and dams etc.). ​
  
 The total water demand from the regional source (<​m>​W_{R,​D}</​m>​) is then calculated as the sum of the demand from each connected sub-basin, scaled by a parameter controlling the strength of the regional connection (<​m>​P_regirr</​m>,​ //regirr// in par.txt): The total water demand from the regional source (<​m>​W_{R,​D}</​m>​) is then calculated as the sum of the demand from each connected sub-basin, scaled by a parameter controlling the strength of the regional connection (<​m>​P_regirr</​m>,​ //regirr// in par.txt):
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 Evaporation due to regional and local inefficiencies proportionally concentrates substances in the withdrawn water. The substance concentrations in the irrigation water applications are hence higher than at the points of withdrawal (the mass remains the same while the volumes are reduced). However, if unlimited irrigation is simulated, the concentrations of the applied water are the same as in the layers to which water is added (i.e. causing no change in concentration). Evaporation due to regional and local inefficiencies proportionally concentrates substances in the withdrawn water. The substance concentrations in the irrigation water applications are hence higher than at the points of withdrawal (the mass remains the same while the volumes are reduced). However, if unlimited irrigation is simulated, the concentrations of the applied water are the same as in the layers to which water is added (i.e. causing no change in concentration).
 +
 +==== Links to file reference ====
 +
 +^Section ^Symbol ^Parameter/​Data ^File ^
 +| | |//cropid, reg//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​cropdata.txt|CropData.txt]]|
 +| | |//​mgmttype//​=1,​ //​subid//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|Irrigation water demand| |//​imm_start,​ imm_end//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​cropdata.txt|CropData.txt]]|
 +|Non-submerged crops| |//​demandtype//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​K_{CB}</​m>​ calculated from:​|//​plantday,​ lengthini, kcbini, lengthdev, lengthmid, kcbmid, lengthlate, kcbend//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​cropdata.txt|CropData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​DL_{ref}</​m>​|//​dlref//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{SSWCORR}</​m>​|//​sswcorr//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{iwdfrac}</​m>​|//​iwdfrac//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|//​AWC//​|//​wcfc1+wcfc2//​|:::​|
 +|Submerged crops|<​m>​WP_1,​ FC_1, EP_1</​m>​ |//wcwp1, wcfc1, wcep1//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{immdepth}</​m>​|//​immdepth//​|:::​|
 +|Irrigation water withdrawal| |//irrdam, gw_part//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|:::| |//​irrunlimited//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​info.txt|info.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{I,​S}</​m>​|//​pirrs//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|Irrigation inefficiencies within the sub-basin|<​m>​E_{L}</​m>,​ <​m>​E_{L,​i}</​m>​|//​local_eff//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|Withdrawal from sources within the sub-basin| |//​irrcomp//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{I,​G}</​m>​|//​pirrg//​|:::​|
 +|Withdrawal from another sub-basin|<​m>​D_{R}</​m>​|//​regsrcid//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​E_{R,​i}</​m>​|//​region_eff//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{regirr}</​m>​|//​regirr//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|Substance concentrations of irrigation water withdrawals|<​m>​P_{cirrsink}</​m>​|//​cirrsink//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +
 +
  
 ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ==== ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ====
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 A point source with negative flow denotes an abstraction of water. The abstraction of water can be made from three different points in the river network. The default is to remove it from the main river volume (including the queue) after all river processes have been calculated except outflow from the river. Alternatives are to abstract the water from the outlet lake volume or from the main river inflow from upstream and from the river volume (and queue) proportionally. In the latter case the removal is done before any inflow to the main river is added (e.g. from upstream, point sources, or precipitation). The water is removed from the source, while the concentration is kept. A point source with negative flow denotes an abstraction of water. The abstraction of water can be made from three different points in the river network. The default is to remove it from the main river volume (including the queue) after all river processes have been calculated except outflow from the river. Alternatives are to abstract the water from the outlet lake volume or from the main river inflow from upstream and from the river volume (and queue) proportionally. In the latter case the removal is done before any inflow to the main river is added (e.g. from upstream, point sources, or precipitation). The water is removed from the source, while the concentration is kept.
 +
 +==== Links to file reference ====
 +
 +^Section ^Parameter/​Data ^File ^
 +|Nutrient point sources|//​subid,​ ps_vol, ps_type, ps_tpconc, ps_tnconc, ps_infrac, ps_spfrac, fromdate, todate//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​pointsourcedata.txt|PointSourceData.txt]]|
 +|Tracer T2 (water temperature) point sources|//​subid,​ ps_vol, ps_type, ps_t2, fromdate, todate//​|:::​|
 +|Tracer T1 point sources|//​pstype=0//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|//​subid,​ ps_vol, ps_t1, fromdate, todate, ps_source//​|:::​|
 +|Negative point source|//​subid,​ ps_vol, fromdate, todate, ps_source//​|:::​|
 +
 +
  
 ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ==== ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ====
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 Alternatively a demanded flow time series from Xobs can be used instead of a constant flow. In this case only one water transfer can be specified for each source lake. Alternatively a demanded flow time series from Xobs can be used instead of a constant flow. In this case only one water transfer can be specified for each source lake.
  
 +
 +==== Links to file reference ====
 +
 +^Section ^Parameter/​Data ^File ^
 +|Water transfer through bifurcation|//​ALL//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​branchdata.txt|BranchData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|//​ldtype=5 and 6//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​lakedata.txt|LakeData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|//​lakeid,​ rate, exp, deltaw0, qprod1, qprod2, datum1,​datum2,​ qamp, qpha, regvol, maxQprod, minflow, obsflow//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|//​dwtr//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​xobs.txt|Xobs.txt]]|
 +|Water transfer through negative point source|//​ps_vol,​ fromdate, todate, ps_source//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​pointsourcedata.txt|PointSourceData.txt]]|
 +|Water transfer through water management|//​mgmttype=2//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|//​subid,​ receiver, flow//|:::|
 +|:::​|//​dwtr//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​xobs.txt|Xobs.txt]]|
 ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ==== ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ====
  
start/hype_model_description/hype_human_water.1530188531.txt.gz · Last modified: 2018/06/28 14:22 by cpers