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start:hype_model_description:hype_human_water [2018/06/28 14:22]
cpers [Wetland nutrient processes]
start:hype_model_description:hype_human_water [2018/11/15 09:39] (current)
cpers
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 ===== Constructed wetlands ===== ===== Constructed wetlands =====
  
-For an overview of basic assumptions and explanation of variables see the [[http://​www.smhi.net/​hype/​wiki/​doku.php?​id=start:​hype_model_description:​hype_routing&#​basic_assumptions| Basic assumptions section]] in the Rivers and lakes chapter.+For an overview of basic assumptions and explanation of variables see the [[start:​hype_model_description:​hype_routing&#​basic_assumptions| Basic assumptions section]] in the Rivers and lakes chapter.
  
-The wetlands that are simulated are small artificial ponds. They have an area and depth, but their area is not taken into account in terms of precipitation and evaporation. The water flow passes through the wetlands without being affected, so it's just as nutrient traps that the wetland model is significant. +The wetlands that are simulated are small artificial ponds. They have an area and depth (//dep//), but their area is not taken into account in terms of precipitation and evaporation. The water flow passes through the wetlands without being affected, so it's just as nutrient traps that the wetland model is significant. 
-There are two types of wetlands, just as for the rivers and lakes. They are situated before the river in the calculation scheme. The local wetland (//lrwet//) receives a share of the local runoff the rest passes by unaffected. Wetlands in main rivers (//mrwet//) receive a portion of the flow in the main river and the rest passes unaffected.+There are two types of wetlands, just as for the rivers and lakes. They are situated before the river in the calculation scheme. The local wetland (//lrwet//) receives a share of the local runoff ​(//​part//​) ​the rest passes by unaffected. Wetlands in main rivers (//mrwet//) receive a portion of the flow in the main river and the rest passes unaffected.
  
  
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 <m> prodTP = uptpar * TPin * area * teta^(temp30-tcoeff) </m> <m> prodTP = uptpar * TPin * area * teta^(temp30-tcoeff) </m>
 \\ \\
 +
 +==== Links to file reference ====
 +
 +^Parameter/​Data ^File ^
 +|//​lrwet_area,​ lrwet_dep, lrwet_part, mrwet_area, mrwet_dep, mrwet_part//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​geodata.txt|GeoData.txt]]|
 +
 +
 +
  
 ==== Links to relevant modules in the code ==== ==== Links to relevant modules in the code ====
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 Irrigation constitutes a key water management activity in many parts of the world. Therefore, the HYPE model has a routine to simulate irrigation. The representation of irrigation in the model is based on a set of principles. Firstly, the irrigation water demand is assessed. Subsequently,​ the demanded water is withdrawn from the defined irrigation water sources. HYPE can either withdraw water from defined sub-basins in the model domain (subject to availability),​ or from unlimited sources outside the domain. Finally, the withdrawn water is applied onto the classes from which the demand originated. In addition, water losses between demand, withdrawal, and application are taken into account (for withdrawals within the model domain). ​ Irrigation constitutes a key water management activity in many parts of the world. Therefore, the HYPE model has a routine to simulate irrigation. The representation of irrigation in the model is based on a set of principles. Firstly, the irrigation water demand is assessed. Subsequently,​ the demanded water is withdrawn from the defined irrigation water sources. HYPE can either withdraw water from defined sub-basins in the model domain (subject to availability),​ or from unlimited sources outside the domain. Finally, the withdrawn water is applied onto the classes from which the demand originated. In addition, water losses between demand, withdrawal, and application are taken into account (for withdrawals within the model domain). ​
  
-A class is irrigated if the crop type associated with it is irrigated (defined in GeoClass.txt). A crop is irrigated if the irrigation input variables in the CropData.txt file are defined and non-zero (//​plantday,​ lengthini, kcbini, lengthdev, lengthmid, kcbmid, lengthlate, kcbend, dlref//). Irrigation also requires appropriate values in the MgmtData.txt file (//gw_part, regsrcid, irrdam, region_eff, local_eff, demandtype//​) and the par.txt file (//pirrs, pirrg, sswcorr// etc.). See the FileDescription document ​for more details on each file and each parameter.+A class is irrigated if the crop type associated with it is irrigated (defined in GeoClass.txt). A crop is irrigated if the irrigation input variables in the CropData.txt file are defined and non-zero (//​plantday,​ lengthini, kcbini, lengthdev, lengthmid, kcbmid, lengthlate, kcbend, dlref//). Irrigation also requires appropriate values in the MgmtData.txt file (//gw_part, regsrcid, irrdam, region_eff, local_eff, demandtype//​) and the par.txt file (//pirrs, pirrg, sswcorr// etc.). See the [[start:​hype_file_reference|File Reference]] ​for more details on each file and each parameter.
  
 ==== Irrigation water demand ==== ==== Irrigation water demand ====
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 For non-submerged crops, the calculations are based on the FAO-56 crop coefficient methods (Allen et al., 1998). The dual crop coefficient method is used because it is more specific than the single crop coefficient method, and more suitable for daily water balance models. Since transpiration is of primary interest in estimating crop water demand, the irrigation routine focuses on estimating potential transpiration (<​m>​T_P</​m>​) with the basal crop coefficient (<​m>​K_{CB}</​m>​) and the reference potential crop evapotranspiration (<​m>​ET_0</​m>​): ​ For non-submerged crops, the calculations are based on the FAO-56 crop coefficient methods (Allen et al., 1998). The dual crop coefficient method is used because it is more specific than the single crop coefficient method, and more suitable for daily water balance models. Since transpiration is of primary interest in estimating crop water demand, the irrigation routine focuses on estimating potential transpiration (<​m>​T_P</​m>​) with the basal crop coefficient (<​m>​K_{CB}</​m>​) and the reference potential crop evapotranspiration (<​m>​ET_0</​m>​): ​
  
-<m> T_P=K_{CB}×ET_0 ​</m>+<m> T_P=K_{CB}*ET_0 </m>
  
 ET0 follows the dynamics described above (<​m>​ET_0 = epot</​m>​ here following Wisser et al. (2008)). KCB depends on crop type and phenological stage, which is defined in CropData.txt. KCB is constant during the initial development stage, then increases linearly during the development stage until it reaches the mid-season stage during which it is again constant. Finally, <​m>​K_{CB}</​m>​ decreases linearly from the end of the mid-season stage until the end of the season. The dynamics of <​m>​ET_0</​m>​ and <​m>​K_{CB}</​m>​ produces a dynamic <​m>​T_P</​m>​ profile (Figure 1). Allen et al. (1998) provide indicative values for <​m>​K_{CB}</​m>​ (cf. their Table 17). ET0 follows the dynamics described above (<​m>​ET_0 = epot</​m>​ here following Wisser et al. (2008)). KCB depends on crop type and phenological stage, which is defined in CropData.txt. KCB is constant during the initial development stage, then increases linearly during the development stage until it reaches the mid-season stage during which it is again constant. Finally, <​m>​K_{CB}</​m>​ decreases linearly from the end of the mid-season stage until the end of the season. The dynamics of <​m>​ET_0</​m>​ and <​m>​K_{CB}</​m>​ produces a dynamic <​m>​T_P</​m>​ profile (Figure 1). Allen et al. (1998) provide indicative values for <​m>​K_{CB}</​m>​ (cf. their Table 17).
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-<m> if H <(S_{SW}×P_{SSWCORR}×AWC) right irrigate </m>+<m> if H <(S_{SW}*P_{SSWCORR}*AWC) right irrigate </m>
  
-H is the plant-available soil moisture (i.e. soil water above //wcwp1// and //wcwp2// in soil layers 1 and 2 respectively). //AWC// is the maximum plant-available water content in soil layers 1 and 2 (i.e. the sum of //fc1// and //fc2//). <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ is a fraction of //AWC// (defined upwards from //wcwp//). Below <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ the crop experiences water stress, creating a need for irrigation. <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ varies from day to day and depends on the crop type and //TP//:+H is the plant-available soil moisture (i.e. soil water above //wcwp1// and //wcwp2// in soil layers 1 and 2 respectively). //AWC// is the maximum plant-available water content in soil layers 1 and 2 (i.e. the sum of //fc1// and //fc2//). <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ is a fraction of //AWC// (defined upwards from //wcwp//). Below <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ the crop experiences water stress, creating a need for irrigation. <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ varies from day to day and depends on the crop type and <​m>​T_P<​/m>:
  
-<m> S_{SW}=1-(DL_{ref}+0.04×(5-{{T_P}/​0.95})) </m>+<m> S_{SW}=1-(DL_{ref}+0.04*(5-{{T_P}/​0.95})) </m>
  
-<​m>​DL_{ref}</​m>​ is a crop-type specific reference depletion level (essentially the fraction of //AWC// that can be depleted before stress occurs, defined downwards from //wcfc//). Allen et al. (1998) provide indicative values for <​m>​DL_{ref}</​m>​ (cf. their Table 22). The <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ equation is a slightly modified form of the original FAO-56 equation to account for the fact that only TP is used here. A typical <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ profile is shown in Figure 3.1. By default, <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ is limited to the range 0.2 – 0.9, but it can be further refined with the parameter <​m>​P_{SSWCORR}</​m>​ (//​sswcorr//​ in par.txt) to maximum 1.+<​m>​DL_{ref}</​m>​ is a crop-type specific reference depletion level (essentially the fraction of //AWC// that can be depleted before stress occurs, defined downwards from //wcfc//). Allen et al. (1998) provide indicative values for <​m>​DL_{ref}</​m>​ (cf. their Table 22). The <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ equation is a slightly modified form of the original FAO-56 equation to account for the fact that only <​m>​T_P</​m> ​is used here. A typical <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ profile is shown in Figure 3.1. By default, <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ is limited to the range 0.2 – 0.9, but it can be further refined with the parameter <​m>​P_{SSWCORR}</​m>​ (//​sswcorr//​ in par.txt) to maximum 1.
  
 If irrigation is needed, the required irrigation amount (<​m>​W_{I,​D,​j}</​m>​) can be calculated with three alternative methods in HYPE (chosen by the demandtype variable in MgmtData.txt):​ If irrigation is needed, the required irrigation amount (<​m>​W_{I,​D,​j}</​m>​) can be calculated with three alternative methods in HYPE (chosen by the demandtype variable in MgmtData.txt):​
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 (3) Up to a defined fraction of <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ (<​m>​P_{iwdfrac}</​m>,​ //iwdfrac// in par.txt): ​ (3) Up to a defined fraction of <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>​ (<​m>​P_{iwdfrac}</​m>,​ //iwdfrac// in par.txt): ​
  
-<​m>​W_{I,​D,​j}=min[(S_{SW}×P_{SSWCORR}×AWC-H)×P_{iwdfrac},​(AWC-H)]</​m>​+<​m>​W_{I,​D,​j}=min[(S_{SW}*P_{SSWCORR}*AWC-H)*P_{iwdfrac},​(AWC-H)]</​m>​
  
 The fraction can be larger than 1. For example, to irrigate to a level 10% above <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>,​ <​m>​P_{iwdfrac}</​m>​ =1.1. <​m>​W_{I,​D,​j}</​m>​ is, however, limited to <​m>​AWC</​m>​. The fraction can be larger than 1. For example, to irrigate to a level 10% above <​m>​S_{SW}</​m>,​ <​m>​P_{iwdfrac}</​m>​ =1.1. <​m>​W_{I,​D,​j}</​m>​ is, however, limited to <​m>​AWC</​m>​.
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 Irrigation water can be abstracted from a set of water sources (Figure 2). Within a given sub-basin, water can be abstracted from the olake, the ilake, the main river, and from groundwater in a deep aquifer. In addition, water can be withdrawn from the olake and the main river of another sub-basin. These sources can be used on their own or in combination. Alternatively,​ HYPE can withdraw water from an unlimited source outside the model domain. This is specified with the ''​irrunlimited''​ code word in info.txt, and applies to all irrigated sub-basins. ​ Irrigation water can be abstracted from a set of water sources (Figure 2). Within a given sub-basin, water can be abstracted from the olake, the ilake, the main river, and from groundwater in a deep aquifer. In addition, water can be withdrawn from the olake and the main river of another sub-basin. These sources can be used on their own or in combination. Alternatively,​ HYPE can withdraw water from an unlimited source outside the model domain. This is specified with the ''​irrunlimited''​ code word in info.txt, and applies to all irrigated sub-basins. ​
  
-Withdrawals are calculated ​just after the local discharge and the upstream discharge ​combine ​to flow into the main river of a given sub-basin.+Withdrawals are calculated ​directly ​after the local discharge and the upstream discharge ​has been combined ​to flow into the main river of a given sub-basin.
  
 |{{:​start:​hype_model_description:​irrigationschematic.png?​500}}| |{{:​start:​hype_model_description:​irrigationschematic.png?​500}}|
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 If the <​m>​W_{L,​D,​s}</​m>​ volume is available at the source, the demanded water is withdrawn. Otherwise, only the available volume (<​m>​V_s</​m>​) is withdrawn. The withdrawal can also be scaled with the user-defined parameter <​m>​P_{I,​S}</​m>​ (//pirrs// in par.txt): ​ If the <​m>​W_{L,​D,​s}</​m>​ volume is available at the source, the demanded water is withdrawn. Otherwise, only the available volume (<​m>​V_s</​m>​) is withdrawn. The withdrawal can also be scaled with the user-defined parameter <​m>​P_{I,​S}</​m>​ (//pirrs// in par.txt): ​
  
-<m> W_{L,​A,​s(1)}=min(W_{L,​D,​s},​V_{s1})×P_{I,S} </m>+<m> W_{L,​A,​s(1)}=min(W_{L,​D,​s},​V_{s1})*P_{I,S} </m>
  
 <m> W_{L,​D,​s2}=W_{L,​D,​s}-{W_{L,​A,​s(1)}}/​{P_{I,​S}} </​m> ​ <m> W_{L,​D,​s2}=W_{L,​D,​s}-{W_{L,​A,​s(1)}}/​{P_{I,​S}} </​m> ​
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 If any groundwater demand exists, the model withdraws a user-specified fraction of <​m>​W_{L,​D,​g}</​m>​ from an unlimited source outside the model domain or if an aquifer is simulated connected to the subbasin from this aquifer. The first case conceptually represents a large deep aquifer source, which is currently outside of the model domain. <​m>​W_{L,​a,​g}</​m>​ is the abstracted groundwater and <​m>​P_{I,​G}</​m>​ (//pirrg// in par.txt) is the groundwater withdrawal fraction: If any groundwater demand exists, the model withdraws a user-specified fraction of <​m>​W_{L,​D,​g}</​m>​ from an unlimited source outside the model domain or if an aquifer is simulated connected to the subbasin from this aquifer. The first case conceptually represents a large deep aquifer source, which is currently outside of the model domain. <​m>​W_{L,​a,​g}</​m>​ is the abstracted groundwater and <​m>​P_{I,​G}</​m>​ (//pirrg// in par.txt) is the groundwater withdrawal fraction:
  
-<m> W_{L,​A,​g}=W_{L,​D,​g}×P_{I,G} </m>+<m> W_{L,​A,​g}=W_{L,​D,​g}*P_{I,G} </m>
  
 To simulate a more dynamic conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water sources, the model allows for compensation of remaining surface water demands from the groundwater source. This compensation is only allowed if both groundwater and surface water sources are used (//​0<​gw_part<​1//​),​ and if the //irrcomp// parameter is >0. The //irrcomp// parameter defines the degree of compensation allowed, i.e. the fraction of the residual surface water demand which can be met through source compensation. The compensation algorithm is as follows: if any surface water demand remains (<​m>​W_{L,​D,​s,​1}</​m>​ > 0) and the groundwater is not depleted, the groundwater withdrawal cycle is calculated once more using the scaled residual surface water demand. Finally, after possible source compensation,​ the remaining (surface) water demand at the sub-basin scale (<​m>​W_{L,​D,​1}</​m>​) is calculated. To simulate a more dynamic conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water sources, the model allows for compensation of remaining surface water demands from the groundwater source. This compensation is only allowed if both groundwater and surface water sources are used (//​0<​gw_part<​1//​),​ and if the //irrcomp// parameter is >0. The //irrcomp// parameter defines the degree of compensation allowed, i.e. the fraction of the residual surface water demand which can be met through source compensation. The compensation algorithm is as follows: if any surface water demand remains (<​m>​W_{L,​D,​s,​1}</​m>​ > 0) and the groundwater is not depleted, the groundwater withdrawal cycle is calculated once more using the scaled residual surface water demand. Finally, after possible source compensation,​ the remaining (surface) water demand at the sub-basin scale (<​m>​W_{L,​D,​1}</​m>​) is calculated.
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 <m> W_{R,​D,​i}={W_{L,​D,​l,​i}}/​{E_{R,​i}} </m> <m> W_{R,​D,​i}={W_{L,​D,​l,​i}}/​{E_{R,​i}} </m>
  
-The regional efficiency (<​m>​E_{R,​i}</​m>,​ //​region_eff//​ in MgmtData.txt) represents the fraction of the withdrawn water at the regional source that reaches the connected sub-basin. E_{R,i} refers to the connected sub-basin. The regional scaling accounts for often significant water conveyance losses in large irrigation networks (in canals and dams etc.). ​+The regional efficiency (<​m>​E_{R,​i}</​m>,​ //​region_eff//​ in MgmtData.txt) represents the fraction of the withdrawn water at the regional source that reaches the connected sub-basin. ​<m>E_{R,i}</​m> ​refers to the connected sub-basin. The regional scaling accounts for often significant water conveyance losses in large irrigation networks (in canals and dams etc.). ​
  
 The total water demand from the regional source (<​m>​W_{R,​D}</​m>​) is then calculated as the sum of the demand from each connected sub-basin, scaled by a parameter controlling the strength of the regional connection (<​m>​P_regirr</​m>,​ //regirr// in par.txt): The total water demand from the regional source (<​m>​W_{R,​D}</​m>​) is then calculated as the sum of the demand from each connected sub-basin, scaled by a parameter controlling the strength of the regional connection (<​m>​P_regirr</​m>,​ //regirr// in par.txt):
  
-<m> W_{R,D}= (sum{i=1}{N}{W_{R,​D,​i}} )×P_{regirr} </m>+<m> W_{R,D}= (sum{i=1}{N}{W_{R,​D,​i}} )*P_{regirr} </m>
  
 The regional demand can be met from two sources in sub-basin <​m>​D_R</​m>:​ the olake and the main river. If the regional source sub-basin has an olake, and if the //irrdam// input variable is set to 1 for that sub-basin, the model attempts to withdraw <​m>​W_{R,​D}</​m>​ first from the olake and then the residual from the main river. If not, the model only attempts to withdraw <​m>​W_{R,​D}</​m>​ from the main river. The regional abstraction (<​m>​W_{R,​a}</​m>​) is limited by the volume available at the source (<​m>​V_r</​m>​) and the scaling parameter <​m>​P_{I,​S}</​m>:​ The regional demand can be met from two sources in sub-basin <​m>​D_R</​m>:​ the olake and the main river. If the regional source sub-basin has an olake, and if the //irrdam// input variable is set to 1 for that sub-basin, the model attempts to withdraw <​m>​W_{R,​D}</​m>​ first from the olake and then the residual from the main river. If not, the model only attempts to withdraw <​m>​W_{R,​D}</​m>​ from the main river. The regional abstraction (<​m>​W_{R,​a}</​m>​) is limited by the volume available at the source (<​m>​V_r</​m>​) and the scaling parameter <​m>​P_{I,​S}</​m>:​
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 <m> W_{R,​D2}=W_{R,​D}-{W_{R,​A1}}/​{P_{I,​S}} </​m> ​ <m> W_{R,​D2}=W_{R,​D}-{W_{R,​A1}}/​{P_{I,​S}} </​m> ​
  
-<m> W_{R,​A2}=min(W_{R,​D2},​V_{r2} )×P_{I,S} </m>+<m> W_{R,​A2}=min(W_{R,​D2},​V_{r2} )*P_{I,S} </m>
  
 <m> W_{R,​A}=W_{R,​A1}+ W_{R,A2} </m> <m> W_{R,​A}=W_{R,​A1}+ W_{R,A2} </m>
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 The concentrations of the withdrawn water are the same as that of the irrigation water source. If the water originates from several sources, the volume-weighted concentration is calculated. If desired, the model can simulate sedimentation tanks, in which a defined fraction of the particulate phosphorous (//pp//) and organic nitrogen (//on//) settles: The concentrations of the withdrawn water are the same as that of the irrigation water source. If the water originates from several sources, the volume-weighted concentration is calculated. If desired, the model can simulate sedimentation tanks, in which a defined fraction of the particulate phosphorous (//pp//) and organic nitrogen (//on//) settles:
  
-<m> C_{a,​pp}=C_{src,​pp}×(1-P_{cirrsink} ) </m>+<m> C_{a,​pp}=C_{src,​pp}*(1-P_{cirrsink} ) </m>
  
-<m> C_{a,​on}=C_{src,​on}×(1-P_{cirrsink} ) </m>+<m> C_{a,​on}=C_{src,​on}*(1-P_{cirrsink} ) </m>
  
 where <​m>​C_{,​a}</​m>​ is the concentration of the abstracted water after settling, <​m>​C_{src}</​m>​ is the concentration of the source, and <​m>​P_{cirrsink}</​m>​ is the concentration reduction fraction (//​cirrsink//​ parameter in par.txt). To use sedimentation tanks in a region, the concentration reduction fraction needs to be set in par.txt (//​0<​cirrsink≤1//​). where <​m>​C_{,​a}</​m>​ is the concentration of the abstracted water after settling, <​m>​C_{src}</​m>​ is the concentration of the source, and <​m>​P_{cirrsink}</​m>​ is the concentration reduction fraction (//​cirrsink//​ parameter in par.txt). To use sedimentation tanks in a region, the concentration reduction fraction needs to be set in par.txt (//​0<​cirrsink≤1//​).
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 The regionally abstracted water (<​m>​W_{R,​A}</​m>​) is first distributed to each connected sub-basin (i) according to their proportional demand, and then scaled to the local scale using the respective regional efficiency: The regionally abstracted water (<​m>​W_{R,​A}</​m>​) is first distributed to each connected sub-basin (i) according to their proportional demand, and then scaled to the local scale using the respective regional efficiency:
  
-<m> W_{R,​A,​i}=W_{R,​A}× {W_{R,D,i}×P_{regirr}}/​{W_{R,​D}}×E_{R,i} </m>+<m> W_{R,​A,​i}=W_{R,​A}{W_{R,D,i}*P_{regirr}}/​{W_{R,​D}}*E_{R,i} </m>
  
 For a given sub-basin, the total amount of abstracted water available at the local scale (<​m>​W_{L,​A,​i,​tot}</​m>​) is calculated and then scaled, using the local efficiency, to represent the water applied to the soil (<​m>​W_{I,​A,​i}</​m>​):​ For a given sub-basin, the total amount of abstracted water available at the local scale (<​m>​W_{L,​A,​i,​tot}</​m>​) is calculated and then scaled, using the local efficiency, to represent the water applied to the soil (<​m>​W_{I,​A,​i}</​m>​):​
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 <m> W_{L,​A,​i,​tot}=W_{L,​A,​i}+W_{R,​A,​i} </m> <m> W_{L,​A,​i,​tot}=W_{L,​A,​i}+W_{R,​A,​i} </m>
  
-<m> W_{I,​A,​i}=W_{L,​A,​i,​tot}×E_{L,i} </m>+<m> W_{I,​A,​i}=W_{L,​A,​i,​tot}*E_{L,i} </m>
  
 <​m>​W_{I,​A,​i}</​m>​ is then distributed onto each irrigated class in proportion to its water demand: <​m>​W_{I,​A,​i}</​m>​ is then distributed onto each irrigated class in proportion to its water demand:
  
-<m> W_{I,​A,​j}=W_{I,​A,​i}×{W_{I,​D,​j}}/​{W_{I,​D}} </m>+<m> W_{I,​A,​j}=W_{I,​A,​i}*{W_{I,​D,​j}}/​{W_{I,​D}} </m>
  
 <​m>​W_{I,​A,​j}</​m>​ is added to the soil water of class j as additional infiltration. <​m>​W_{I,​A,​j}</​m>​ is divided between the top two soil layers according to the epotdist function, beginning with the second layer. For unlimited irrigation: <​m>​W_{I,​A,​j} =  W_{I,​D,​j}</​m>​ , <​m>​P_{I,​S} =1</​m>​ and <​m>​P_{I,​G} = 1</​m>​. <​m>​W_{I,​A,​j}</​m>​ is added to the soil water of class j as additional infiltration. <​m>​W_{I,​A,​j}</​m>​ is divided between the top two soil layers according to the epotdist function, beginning with the second layer. For unlimited irrigation: <​m>​W_{I,​A,​j} =  W_{I,​D,​j}</​m>​ , <​m>​P_{I,​S} =1</​m>​ and <​m>​P_{I,​G} = 1</​m>​.
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 Evaporation due to regional and local inefficiencies proportionally concentrates substances in the withdrawn water. The substance concentrations in the irrigation water applications are hence higher than at the points of withdrawal (the mass remains the same while the volumes are reduced). However, if unlimited irrigation is simulated, the concentrations of the applied water are the same as in the layers to which water is added (i.e. causing no change in concentration). Evaporation due to regional and local inefficiencies proportionally concentrates substances in the withdrawn water. The substance concentrations in the irrigation water applications are hence higher than at the points of withdrawal (the mass remains the same while the volumes are reduced). However, if unlimited irrigation is simulated, the concentrations of the applied water are the same as in the layers to which water is added (i.e. causing no change in concentration).
 +
 +==== Links to file reference ====
 +
 +^Section ^Symbol ^Parameter/​Data ^File ^
 +| | |//cropid, reg//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​cropdata.txt|CropData.txt]]|
 +| | |//​mgmttype//​=1,​ //​subid//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|Irrigation water demand| |//​imm_start,​ imm_end//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​cropdata.txt|CropData.txt]]|
 +|Non-submerged crops| |//​demandtype//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​K_{CB}</​m>​ calculated from:​|//​plantday,​ lengthini, kcbini, lengthdev, lengthmid, kcbmid, lengthlate, kcbend//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​cropdata.txt|CropData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​DL_{ref}</​m>​|//​dlref//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{SSWCORR}</​m>​|//​sswcorr//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{iwdfrac}</​m>​|//​iwdfrac//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|//​AWC//​|//​wcfc1+wcfc2//​|:::​|
 +|Submerged crops|<​m>​WP_1,​ FC_1, EP_1</​m>​ |//wcwp1, wcfc1, wcep1//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{immdepth}</​m>​|//​immdepth//​|:::​|
 +|Irrigation water withdrawal| |//irrdam, gw_part//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|:::| |//​irrunlimited//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​info.txt|info.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{I,​S}</​m>​|//​pirrs//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|Irrigation inefficiencies within the sub-basin|<​m>​E_{L}</​m>,​ <​m>​E_{L,​i}</​m>​|//​local_eff//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|Withdrawal from sources within the sub-basin| |//​irrcomp//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{I,​G}</​m>​|//​pirrg//​|:::​|
 +|Withdrawal from another sub-basin|<​m>​D_{R}</​m>​|//​regsrcid//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​E_{R,​i}</​m>​|//​region_eff//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|<​m>​P_{regirr}</​m>​|//​regirr//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|Substance concentrations of irrigation water withdrawals|<​m>​P_{cirrsink}</​m>​|//​cirrsink//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +
 +
  
 ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ==== ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ====
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 A point source with negative flow denotes an abstraction of water. The abstraction of water can be made from three different points in the river network. The default is to remove it from the main river volume (including the queue) after all river processes have been calculated except outflow from the river. Alternatives are to abstract the water from the outlet lake volume or from the main river inflow from upstream and from the river volume (and queue) proportionally. In the latter case the removal is done before any inflow to the main river is added (e.g. from upstream, point sources, or precipitation). The water is removed from the source, while the concentration is kept. A point source with negative flow denotes an abstraction of water. The abstraction of water can be made from three different points in the river network. The default is to remove it from the main river volume (including the queue) after all river processes have been calculated except outflow from the river. Alternatives are to abstract the water from the outlet lake volume or from the main river inflow from upstream and from the river volume (and queue) proportionally. In the latter case the removal is done before any inflow to the main river is added (e.g. from upstream, point sources, or precipitation). The water is removed from the source, while the concentration is kept.
 +
 +==== Links to file reference ====
 +
 +^Section ^Parameter/​Data ^File ^
 +|Nutrient point sources|//​subid,​ ps_vol, ps_type, ps_tpconc, ps_tnconc, ps_infrac, ps_spfrac, fromdate, todate//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​pointsourcedata.txt|PointSourceData.txt]]|
 +|Tracer T2 (water temperature) point sources|//​subid,​ ps_vol, ps_type, ps_t2, fromdate, todate//​|:::​|
 +|Tracer T1 point sources|//​pstype=0//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|//​subid,​ ps_vol, ps_t1, fromdate, todate, ps_source//​|:::​|
 +|Negative point source|//​subid,​ ps_vol, fromdate, todate, ps_source//​|:::​|
 +
 +
  
 ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ==== ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ====
Line 276: Line 322:
  
 Alternatively a demanded flow time series from Xobs can be used instead of a constant flow. In this case only one water transfer can be specified for each source lake. Alternatively a demanded flow time series from Xobs can be used instead of a constant flow. In this case only one water transfer can be specified for each source lake.
 +
 +
 +==== Links to file reference ====
 +
 +^Section ^Parameter/​Data ^File ^
 +|Water transfer through bifurcation|//​ALL//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​branchdata.txt|BranchData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|//​ldtype=5 and 6//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​lakedata.txt|LakeData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|//​lakeid,​ rate, exp, deltaw0, qprod1, qprod2, datum1,​datum2,​ qamp, qpha, regvol, maxQprod, minflow, obsflow//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|//​dwtr//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​xobs.txt|Xobs.txt]]|
 +|Water transfer through negative point source|//​ps_vol,​ fromdate, todate, ps_source//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​pointsourcedata.txt|PointSourceData.txt]]|
 +|Water transfer through water management|//​mgmttype=2//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​mgmtdata.txt|MgmtData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|//​subid,​ receiver, flow//|:::|
 +|:::​|//​dwtr//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​xobs.txt|Xobs.txt]]|
  
 ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ==== ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ====
Line 290: Line 349:
 |:::​|water_transfer_from_outlet_lake| ::: | |:::​|water_transfer_from_outlet_lake| ::: |
  
 +===== Dams =====
  
 +Regulation of flow through dams is described in the Chapter about [[start:​hype_model_description:​hype_routing| Rivers and lakes]]. Dams of different purposes and regulation management can be simulated. See details in the sections on [[start:​hype_model_description:​hype_routing#​simple_outlet_lake_or_dam_olake| Simple outlet lake or dam]] and the special case of an [[start:​hype_model_description:​hype_routing#​outlet_lake_with_two_outlets| Outlet lake with two outlets]].
start/hype_model_description/hype_human_water.1530188531.txt.gz · Last modified: 2018/06/28 14:22 by cpers