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start:hype_model_description:hype_orgc [2018/09/10 10:10]
cpers [Links to relevantprocedures in the code]
start:hype_model_description:hype_orgc [2018/10/12 14:03] (current)
cpers [Links to file reference]
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 ===== Source of organic material ===== ===== Source of organic material =====
  
-Litter ​production leads to the production ​of organic material, which increases levels //fastC// in top two layers in soil. The organic carbon litter fall is determined by crop //resc// (//​kg/​ha/​yr//​) gives a daily supplement to the pool during the number of days determined by parameter litterdays.+Litter ​fall in the form of plant residues add organic material ​to HYPE. It increases ​the levels ​of //fastC// in top two layers in soil. The organic carbon ​addition by litter fall is defined based on crop. Input, ​//resc// (//​kg/​ha/​yr//​)gives a daily supplement to the pool during the number of days determined by parameter ​//litterdays//.
  
-==== Links to relevantprocedures ​in the code ====+ 
 +==== Links to relevant procedures ​in the code ====
  
 ^Modules (file) ^Procedures ^ ^Modules (file) ^Procedures ^
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 ===== Soil processes ===== ===== Soil processes =====
  
-====Soil ​pools – initial values====+====Soil ​pool initial values====
  
-The initial ​pool size is dependent on land use and is determined by the user in the file par.txt. The parameters (//humusc1, humusc2, humusc3, fastc1, fastc2, fastc3//) give OC content of the three soil layers. The unit for these parameter values is //mg/m3//. With this information,​ the pools the size in the different layers are calculated. The model transforms pools into the unit //kg/km2// by taking into account the thickness in the layers. ​+The initial size of organic carbon pools in the soil is dependent on land use and determined by the user. The parameters (//humusc1, humusc2, humusc3, fastc1, fastc2, fastc3//) give OC content of the three soil layers. The unit for these parameter values is //mg/m3//. With this information,​ the pools the size in the different layers are calculated. The model transforms pools into the unit //kg/km2// by taking into account the thickness in the layers. ​
  
 ====Common functions==== ====Common functions====
  
-Many soil processes depend on temperature and soil moisture. ​These use the same functions as [[start:​hype_model_description:​hype_np_soil#​common_functions|for nitrogen and phosphorus]]. Organic carbon soil transformations (production of humusC from fastC, turnover of fastCand turnover of humusC) use the soil moisture function with parameters given by the user instead of the coefficients described for nutrients. The coefficient ​thetalow ​is replaced by the land-use dependent parameter //​ocsoilslp//,​ and the coefficient satact is replaced by land-use dependent parameter //​ocsoilsat//​.+Many soil processes depend on temperature and soil moisture. ​They use the same common ​functions as [[start:​hype_model_description:​hype_np_soil#​common_functions|nitrogen and phosphorus]]. Organic carbon soil transformations (production of humusC from fastC, turnover of fastC and turnover of humusC) use the soil moisture function with parameters given by the user instead of the coefficients described for nutrients. The coefficient ​<​m>​theta_low</​m> ​is replaced by the land-use dependent parameter //​ocsoilslp//,​ and the coefficient ​//satact// is replaced by land-use dependent parameter //​ocsoilsat//​.
  
 |{{:​start:​hype_model_description:​organiccarboninsoil.png?​400|Adds an ImageCaption tag}}| |{{:​start:​hype_model_description:​organiccarboninsoil.png?​400|Adds an ImageCaption tag}}|
-|Figure ​21: Organic carbon processes in soil. |+|Figure ​2: Organic carbon processes in soil. |
  
  
 ==== Production of humusC from fastC ==== ==== Production of humusC from fastC ====
  
-Some of the litter fall (added to fastC) ​is converted into humus. ​This means that the model has a transformation of fastC to humusC in the uppermost soil layer. ​+Some of the litter fall is converted into humus. ​For HYPE this means that fastC (the pool where litter fall was added) is transformed ​to humusC in the uppermost soil layer. In Figure 2 the pool of humusC is denoted slowC because of its slower transformation rates.
  
-In the other layers (//​k//​) ​is also a transition from fastC to humusC. The loss of fastC does not all go to humusC but a proportion (parameter //minc//) is mineralized. The transformation depends on soil moisture and temperature,​ amount of //fastC// and vegetation dependent parameter //klh//.+The other soil layers (//k//) also have a transition from fastC to humusC. The loss of fastC does not all end up in the humusC ​pool, but a proportion (parameter //minc//) is mineralized ​in the process. The transformation ​(//​fasttohumus,​ mg/​m2/​d//​) ​depends on soil moisture ​(//​smfcn//​) ​and temperature ​(//​tmpfcn//​), amount of Oc in the pool (//fastC//and vegetation dependent parameter //klh//.
  
-<​m> ​littertohumus(k) = klh * tmpfcn(k) * smfcn(k) * fastC(k) </m>+<​m> ​fasttohumus(k) = klh * tmpfcn(k) * smfcn(k) * fastC(k) </m>
  
 ==== Turnover of fastC ==== ==== Turnover of fastC ====
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 <m> transfC(k) = klo * tempfcn(k) * smfcn(k) * fastC(k) </m> <m> transfC(k) = klo * tempfcn(k) * smfcn(k) * fastC(k) </m>
  
-In dry conditions a flow in the opposite direction can also occur. The transformation of OC to fastC is a decrease of OC and a source of fastC in all soil layers (//k// = 1-3). The loss of OC is not all to fastC but a proportion (parameter //minc//) is mineralized. Turnover (//​doctofast//,​ mg/m2/d) depends on a general parameter (//kof//) and the pool of OC (//​OCpool//​). The flow is limited that the soil layer temperature must be less than 5 °C, the soil moisture (//sm//) must be less than field capacity and moisture function (//smfcn//) must be less than the parameter //koflim//.+In dry conditions a transfer ​in the opposite direction can also occur. The transformation of OC to fastC is a decrease of OC and a source of fastC in all soil layers (//k// = 1-3). The loss of OC is not all to fastC but a proportion (parameter //minc//) is mineralized. Turnover (//​doctofast//,​ mg/m2/d) depends on a general parameter (//kof//) and the pool of OC (//​OCpool//​). The transfer ​is limited that the soil layer temperature must be less than 5 °C, the soil moisture (//sm//) must be less than field capacity and moisture function (//smfcn//) must be less than the parameter //koflim//.
  
 <m> doctofast(k) = kof * OCpool(k) </m> <m> doctofast(k) = kof * OCpool(k) </m>
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 ==== Turnover of humusC ==== ==== Turnover of humusC ====
  
-Turnover of humusC is a sink for humusC and a source of OC in all soil layers (k = 1.3). The loss of humusC does not all go to the DOC, but a proportion (parameter //minc//) is mineralized. Turnover (//​transhC//,​ //​mg/​m2/​d//​) depends on a general parameter (//kho//), temperature function (//​tempfcn//​),​ humidity function (//smfcn//) and the pool of humusC (//​humusC//​).+Turnover of humusC is a sink for humusC and a source of OC in all soil layers (k = 1.3). The turnover rate of humusC is lower than that of fastC, why it is also called slowC (e.g. in Figure 2). The loss of humusC does not all go to the DOC, but a proportion (parameter //minc//) is mineralized. Turnover (//​transhC//,​ //​mg/​m2/​d//​) depends on a general parameter (//kho//), temperature function (//​tempfcn//​),​ humidity function (//smfcn//) and the pool of humusC (//​humusC//​).
  
 <m> transhC(k) = kho * tempfcn(k) * smfcn(k) * humusC(k) </m> <m> transhC(k) = kho * tempfcn(k) * smfcn(k) * humusC(k) </m>
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 <m> conc = conc*(1 - par*tmpfcn*smfcn) </m> <m> conc = conc*(1 - par*tmpfcn*smfcn) </m>
  
-The soil moisture function and temperature function are the general functions described for soil processes. Percolation uses the coefficients for soil moisture function, not the parameters ​as the transformations. The parameter //par// in the equation is called ​//kcgwreg// for regional groundwater flow formation and //koc// for percolation between soil layers. Both are general parameters.+The soil moisture function and temperature function are the general functions described for soil processes. Percolation uses the nutrient ​coefficients for the soil moisture function, not the parameters ​that the OC transformations ​uses. The parameter//par// in the equationis //kcgwreg// for regional groundwater flow formation and //koc// for percolation between soil layers. Both are general parameters.
  
 ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ==== ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ====
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 ===== Riparian zone ===== ===== Riparian zone =====
  
-Runoff from soil layers ​flows through a riparian zone before it reaches the local river. Surface runoff and drainage water from drainage pipes reaches the local river without passing through the riparian zone.+Runoff from soil may flows through a riparian zone before it reaches the local river. Surface runoff and drainage water from drainage pipes reaches the local river without passing through the riparian zone.
 In the riparian zone the levels of OC are affected, while flows remain unchanged. The change depends on soil temperature,​ class altitude (//elev// (in masl)), the water table (//gwat//) and its recent change, season and soil moisture (//sm//). The runoff concentration (//​conc(i)//​) of each soillayer (//k//) increases with the factor: In the riparian zone the levels of OC are affected, while flows remain unchanged. The change depends on soil temperature,​ class altitude (//elev// (in masl)), the water table (//gwat//) and its recent change, season and soil moisture (//sm//). The runoff concentration (//​conc(i)//​) of each soillayer (//k//) increases with the factor:
  
-<m> f(k)=1+ripz×tmpfcn(k)×({elev}/​{100})×f_{grw}×f_{season}×f_{sm} </m>+<m> f(k)=1+ripz*tmpfcn(k)*({elev}/​{100})*f_{grw}*f_{season}*f_{sm} </m>
  
-<m> conc(k)=f×conc(k), ~~   ​k=1..3 </m>+<m> conc(k)=f*conc(k), ~~   ​k=1..3 </m>
  
 The temperature function (//​tmpfcn//​) is the usual of soil processes (see above). The following equations describe the other process functions: The temperature function (//​tmpfcn//​) is the usual of soil processes (see above). The following equations describe the other process functions:
   ​   ​
-<m> f_{grw}=e^{ripe×gwat} </m>+<m> f_{grw}=e^{ripe*gwat} </m>
  
  
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 <m> f_{sm}=delim{lbrace}{ <m> f_{sm}=delim{lbrace}{
  ​matrix{3}{2}{  ​matrix{3}{2}{
-   0 smwp +   ​0 ​{sm<=wp} 
-  {f_2 (sm)} {wp<​sm<​wp}  +  {f_2 (sm)} {wp<​sm<​pw}  
-  satact smpw}+  satact ​{sm>=pw}}
    }{} </m>    }{} </m>
  
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 <m> f_2(sm)=delim{lbrace}{ <m> f_2(sm)=delim{lbrace}{
  ​matrix{2}{2}{  ​matrix{2}{2}{
-  {min(1,​satact+(1-satact)×{pw-sm}/{\Theta_{upp}},​{sm-wp}/​{\Theta_{low} })} {rising grw} +  {min(1,​satact+(1-satact)*{pw-sm}/{d*\Theta_{upp}},​{sm-wp}/​{d*\Theta_{low} })} {rising grw} 
-  {min(1,​satact+(1-satact)×{pw-sm}/{\Theta_{upp}},​satact×{sm-wp}/{\Theta_{low} })} {sinking grw}}+  {min(1,​satact+(1-satact)*{pw-sm}/{d*\Theta_{upp}},​satact*{sm-wp}/{d*\Theta_{low} })} {sinking grw}}
    }{} </m>    }{} </m>
   ​   ​
-Three general parameters can be changed; ​//​ripz// ​which determines the overall level of increase in concentration in the riparian zone, //ripe// which determines the groundwater level dependence, and //rips// which determines the seasonal influence. Season division is determined by ten-day and twenty-day averages of air temperature (T10, T20). Autumn is defined as the period when T10 is less than T20. The soil moisture function is different for an increasing (rising) and sinking ground water table (figure 2). It contains coefficients <​m>​\Theta_{upp} = 0.12</​m>,​ <​m>​\Theta_{low} = 0.08</​m>​ and saturation (//satact// = 0.6). It depends on the soil moisture of all layers together (//sm//) and the water-holding capacity parameters; //wp// - wilting border and //pw// - total pore volume, in fractions of total soil layer thickness (//d//).+The activation of riparian zone processes is based on land use. It is primarily though to act on forest runoff. The land use dependent parameter ​//ripz// determines the overall level of increase in concentration in the riparian zone, and if set to zero no riparian zone processes are used. In addition two general parameters can influence the effect of the riparian processes; ​//ripe// which determines the groundwater level dependence, and //rips// which determines the seasonal influence. Season division is determined by ten-day and twenty-day averages of air temperature (T10, T20). Autumn is defined as the period when T10 is less than T20. The soil moisture function is different for an increasing (rising) and sinking ground water table (figure 2). It contains coefficients <​m>​\Theta_{upp} = 0.12</​m>,​ <​m>​\Theta_{low} = 0.08</​m>​ and saturation (//satact// = 0.6). It depends on the soil moisture of all layers together (//sm//) and the water-holding capacity parameters; //wp// - wilting border and //pw// - total pore volume, in fractions of total soil layer thickness (//d//).
    
  
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 |Figure 2: Example of riparian zone soil moisture function, and the dependence on changes in the groundwater levels.| |Figure 2: Example of riparian zone soil moisture function, and the dependence on changes in the groundwater levels.|
  
-==== Links to relevantprocedures ​in the code ====+==== Links to relevant procedures ​in the code ====
  
 ^Modules (file) ^Procedures ^ ^Modules (file) ^Procedures ^
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-Primary production is a source of organic carbon in rivers and lakes, while mineralization is a sink. Primary production and mineralization is calculated the same way as for nitrogen, but with its own calibration parameter (//​wprodc//​). The potential carbon transformation (//​minprodCpot//,​ kg / day) is proportional to the potential nitrogen transformation (//​minprodNpot//,​ see [[start:​hype_model_description:​hype_np_riv_lake#​primary_production_and_mineralization|NP section]]) with a transformation rate that depends on the carbon-nitrogen ratio (//​NCratio//​ = 5.7). The calculated mineralization of organic carbon is limited to a maximum of 50% of the available OC pool. The parameters that affect the process of organic carbon are the rate parameter //wprod// and the lake region dependent parameter //TPmean//. If phosphorus is not modelled a long-term average total phosphorus concentration as a lake region dependent parameter (//​tpmean//​) is used. If set, the long-term average concentration is reduced by the general parameter //​limsedPP//​ before using it in the concentration function.+Primary production is a source of organic carbon in rivers and lakes, while mineralization is a sink. Primary production and mineralization is calculated the same way as for nitrogen, but with its own calibration parameter (//wprodc//). The equations are repeated below. The production/​mineralization depend on temperature and total phosphorus and lake area (//area//). The potential carbon transformation (//​minprodCpot//,​ kg / day) is proportional to the potential nitrogen transformation (//​minprodNpot//,​ see also  ​[[start:​hype_model_description:​hype_np_riv_lake#​primary_production_and_mineralization|NP section]]) with a transformation rate that depends on the carbon-nitrogen ratio (//​NCratio//​ = 5.7). The calculated mineralization of organic carbon is limited to a maximum of 50% of the available OC pool. If phosphorus is not modelled a long-term average total phosphorus concentration as a lake region dependent parameter (//​tpmean//​) is used. If set, the long-term average concentration is reduced by the general parameter //​limsedPP//​ before using it in the concentration function ​thus reducing the production/​mineralisation of OC.
  
 <m> tmpfcn1 = watertemp / 20. </m> <m> tmpfcn1 = watertemp / 20. </m>
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 ==== Sedimentation ==== ==== Sedimentation ====
  
-Sedimentation in lakes is a sink for OC and works the same way as for organic nitrogen and particulate phosphorus. Sedimentation (//sedOC//, //kg/day//) is calculated as a function of water concentration and lake area (//area//). The parameter //sedoc// is general or can be specified for each lake.+Sedimentation in lakes is a sink for OC and works the same way as for organic nitrogen and particulate phosphorus. Sedimentation (//sedOC//, //kg/day//) is calculated as a function of OC concentration ​in lake water (//​conc//​)) ​and lake area (//area//). The settling velocity ​parameter //sedoc// is general or can be specified for each lake.
  
-<m> sedOC = sedoc * waterconcOC ​* area </​m> ​  +<m> sedOC = sedoc * conc * area </​m> ​  
  
 ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ==== ==== Links to relevant procedures in the code ====
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 |:::​|:::​|sedimentation| |:::​|:::​|sedimentation|
 |:::​|oc_sedimentation|sedimentation| |:::​|oc_sedimentation|sedimentation|
 +
 +
 +===== Links to file reference =====
 +
 +^Section ^Symbol ^Parameter/​Data ^File ^
 +|Sources of organic material| |//​resc//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​cropdata.txt|CropData.txt]]|
 +|:::| |//​litterdays//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|Soil processes| |//humusc1, humusc2, humusc3, fastc1, fastc2, fastc3, koflim//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|:::​|<​m>​theta_low</​m>​ |//​ocsoilslp//​ or 0.08|:::|
 +|:::​|//​satact//​|//​ocsoilsat//​ or 0.6|:::|
 +|:::​|//​minc,​ klh, klo, kof, kho//​|//​minc,​ klh, klo, kof, kho//|:::|
 +|:::​|//​par//​|//​kcgwreg//​ or //​koc//​|:::​|
 +|Riparian zone|//​elev//​|calculated from //​mean_elev//​ and //​dhslc_nn//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​geodata.txt|GeoData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|//​ripz//,​ //ripe//, //​rips//​|//​ripz//,​ //ripe//, //​rips//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|:::​|//​wp//​|calculated from //wcwp//, //wcwp1//, //wcwp2//, //​wcwp3//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|//​pw//​|calculated from //wcwp//, //​wcwp1-wcwp3//,​ //wcfc//, //​wcfc1-wcfc3//,​ //wcep//, //​wcep1-wcep3//​|:::​|
 +|:::|//d// | |[[start:​hype_file_reference:​geoclass.txt|GeoClass.txt]]|
 +|Rivers and lakes|//​area//​| |[[start:​hype_file_reference:​geodata.txt|GeoData.txt]]|
 +|:::​|//​wprodc//,​ //​limsedpp//,​ //​sedoc//​|//​wprodc//,​ //​limsedpp//,​ //​sedoc//​|[[start:​hype_file_reference:​par.txt|par.txt]]|
 +|:::| |//​tpmean//​|:::​|
 +|:::​|//​halfsatTPwater//​|//​hsatTP//​|:::​|
  
start/hype_model_description/hype_orgc.1536567051.txt.gz · Last modified: 2018/09/10 10:10 by cpers