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Litter fall in the form of plant residues add organic material to HYPE. It increases the levels of fastC in top two layers in soil. The organic carbon addition by litter fall is defined based on crop/vegetation. Input, resc (kg/ha/yr), gives a daily supplement to the pool during the number of days determined by parameter litterdays.
The initial size of organic carbon pools in the soil is dependent on land use and determined by the user. The parameters (humusc1, humusc2, humusc3, fastc1, fastc2, fastc3) give OC content of the three soil layers. The unit for these parameter values is mg/m3. With this information, the pools the size in the different layers are calculated. The model transforms pools into the unit kg/km2 by taking into account the thickness in the layers.
Many soil processes depend on temperature and soil moisture. They use the same common functions as nitrogen and phosphorus. Organic carbon soil transformations (production of humusC from fastC, turnover of fastC and turnover of humusC) use the soil moisture function with parameters given by the user instead of the coefficients described for nitrogen and phosphorus. The coefficient is replaced by the land-use dependent parameter ocsoilslp, and the coefficient satact is replaced by land-use dependent parameter ocsoilsat.
Some of the litter fall is converted into humus. For HYPE this means that fastC (the pool where litter fall was added) is transformed to humusC in the uppermost soil layer. In Figure 2 the pool of humusC is denoted slowC because of its slower transformation rates.
The other soil layers (k) also have a transition from fastC to humusC. The loss of fastC does not all end up in the humusC pool, but a proportion (parameter minc) is mineralized in the process. The transformation (fasttohumus, mg/m2/d) depends on soil moisture (smfcn) and temperature (tmpfcn), amount of OC in the pool (fastC) and a vegetation dependent parameter klh.
Turnover of fastC is a sink for fastC and a source of dissolved OC in soil water (DOC) in all soil layers (k = 1-3). The loss of fastC does not all go to the OCpool, but a proportion (parameter minc) is mineralized. Turnover (transfC, mg/m2/d) depends on a general parameter (klo), the temperature function (tempfcn), humidity function (smfcn) and the pool of fastC (fastC).
In dry conditions a transfer in the opposite direction can also occur. The transformation of DOC to fastC is a decrease of DOC and a source of fastC in all soil layers (k = 1-3). The loss of DOC is not all ending up in fastC but a proportion (parameter minc) is mineralized. Turnover (doctofast, mg/m2/d) depends on a general parameter (kof) and the pool of DOC (OCpool). The transfer is limited that the soil layer temperature must be less than 5 °C, the soil moisture (sm) must be less than field capacity and moisture function (smfcn) must be less than the parameter koflim.
Turnover of humusC is a sink for humusC and a source of DOC in all soil layers (k = 1.3). The turnover rate of humusC is lower than that of fastC, why it is sometimes called slowC (e.g. in Figure 2). The loss of humusC does not all go to the soil water OC, but a proportion (parameter minc) is mineralized. Turnover (transhC, mg/m2/d) depends on a general parameter (kho), temperature function (tempfcn), humidity function (smfcn) and the pool of humusC (humusC).
Organic carbon is lost from the soil water as it percolates down through the soil layers and where it is dissipated to become a regional groundwater flow. The decrease in concentration of percolating water during transport between the soil layers depends on soil moisture and temperature and a calibration parameter.
The soil moisture function and temperature function are the general functions described for soil processes. Percolation uses the nitrogen and phosphorus coefficients for the soil moisture function, not the parameters that the OC transformations uses. The parameter, par in the equation, is kcgwreg for regional groundwater flow formation and koc for percolation between soil layers. Both are general parameters.
|npc_soil_processes (npc_soil_proc.f90)||initiate_soil_npc||initial values|
|soil_substance_processes||production of humusC from fastC, turnover|
Runoff from soil may flows through a riparian zone before it reaches the local river. Surface runoff and drainage water from drainage pipes reaches the local river without passing through the riparian zone. In the riparian zone the levels of OC are affected, while flows remain unchanged. The change in OC depends on soil temperature, class altitude (elev (in masl)), the water table (gwat) and its recent change, season and soil moisture (sm). The runoff concentration (conc(i)) of each soillayer (k) increases with the factor:
The temperature function (tmpfcn) is the usual of soil processes (see above). The following equations describe the other process functions:
The activation of riparian zone processes is based on land use. It is primarily thought to act on forest runoff. The land use dependent parameter ripz determines the overall level of increase in concentration in the riparian zone, and if set to zero no riparian zone processes are used. In addition, two general parameters can influence the effect of the riparian processes; ripe which determines the groundwater level dependence, and rips which determines the seasonal influence. Season division is determined by ten-day and twenty-day averages of air temperature (T10, T20). Autumn is defined as the period when T10 is less than T20. The soil moisture function is different for an increasing (rising) and sinking ground water table (Figure 3). It contains coefficients , and saturation (satact = 0.6). It depends on the soil moisture of all layers together (sm) and the water-holding capacity parameters; wp - wilting border and pw - total pore volume, in fractions of total soil layer thickness (d).
The initial organic carbon concentration in rivers are assumed to be zero, while the lakes' concentration are set by the user. The parameter, tocmean, is lakeregion dependent, but can also be set for each lake separately.
Primary production is a source of organic carbon in rivers and lakes, while mineralization is a sink. Primary production and mineralization are calculated the same way as for nitrogen, but with its own calibration parameter (wprodc). The equations are repeated below. The production/mineralization depend on temperature and total phosphorus and lake area (area). The potential carbon transformation (minprodCpot, kg / day) is proportional to the potential nitrogen transformation (minprodNpot, see also NP section) with a transformation rate that depends on the carbon-nitrogen ratio (NCratio = 5.7). The calculated mineralization of organic carbon is limited to a maximum of 50% of the available OC pool. If phosphorus is not modelled a long-term average total phosphorus concentration as a lake region dependent parameter (tpmean) is used. If set, the long-term average concentration of phosphorus is reduced by the general parameter limsedPP before using it in the concentration function thus reducing the production/mineralisation of OC. The water depth (depth) is the lake depth, and for the river the depth calculated above.
Sedimentation in lakes is a sink for OC and works the same way as for organic nitrogen and particulate phosphorus. Sedimentation (sedOC, kg/day) is calculated as a function of OC concentration in lake water (conc)) and lake area (area). The settling velocity parameter sedoc is general or can be specified for each lake.
|npc_surfacewater_processes (npc_sw_proc.f90)||substance_processes_in_river||primary production and mineralization|
|substance_processes_in_lake||primary production and mineralization|
|Sources of organic material||resc||CropData.txt|
|Soil processes||humusc1, humusc2, humusc3, fastc1, fastc2, fastc3, koflim||par.txt|
|ocsoilslp or 0.08|
|satact||ocsoilsat or 0.6|
|minc, klh, klo, kof, kho||minc, klh, klo, kof, kho|
|par||kcgwreg or koc|
|Riparian zone||elev||calculated from mean_elev and dhslc_nn||GeoData.txt|
|ripz, ripe, rips||ripz, ripe, rips||par.txt|
|wp||calculated from wcwp, wcwp1, wcwp2, wcwp3|
|pw||calculated from wcwp, wcwp1-wcwp3, wcfc, wcfc1-wcfc3, wcep, wcep1-wcep3|
|Rivers and lakes||area, lakeregion||GeoData.txt|
|tocmean, wprodc, sedoc||tocmean, wprodc, sedoc||par.txt or LakeData.txt|